The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most consumed food legume in the world and is a major source of dietary protein, carbohydrates, and valuable micronutrients, especially in developing countries. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArTseq), based on genome reduction with restriction enzymes, provides a rapid, high-throughput, and cost-effective tool capable of generating thousands of genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for a genome-wide analysis of genetic diversity. In this study, we aimed to characterize common bean accessions using SNPs detected by a DArTseq approach. A total of 43,018 SNPs were identified from 173 common bean accessions, including Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes. After filtering raw and redundant data, a total of 16,366 SNPs were considered for further analyses. According to population structure analysis, the genotypes were roughly divided into 2 gene pools of Andean and Mesoamerican types. Pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were calculated to resolve the differentiation between populations. This study demonstrated that discovering SNPs from the whole genome is a potential resource for identifying naturally diverse accessions and also the information could be used in breeding programs to develop new common bean varieties.