MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules at about 22 nucleotide in length that are non-coding, which regulate gene expression in the post-transcriptional level by performing degradation or blocks translation of the target mRNA. It is known that they play roles in mechanisms such as metabolic regulation, embryogenesis, organogenesis, differentiation and growth control by providing post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. With these properties, miRNAs play important roles in the regulation of biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, drug resistance mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. In addition, there are miRNAs that can be used for cancer therapy. Tumor cells and tumor microenvironment have different miRNA expression profiles. Some miRNAs are known to play a role in the onset and progression of the tumor. miRNAs with oncogenic or tumor suppressive activity specific to different cancer types are still being investigated. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs in tumorigenesis, therapeutic strategies in human cancer and current studies.