Objective: Each medical specialty has its own reasons to be selected as a career by medical doctors. The aim of this study was to identify the main reasons to select pediatric surgery as a medical career among Turkish pediatric surgeons and residents. Material and Methods: Data of this cross-sectional survey were collected from pediatric surgeons and residents, based on a self-administrated questionnaire during 23(rd) National Congress of Pediatric Surgery in September 2005. The questionnaire included demographic variables (sex, gender, academic affiliation) and 13 possible influence factors which were marked on a 7 point semantic differentiation scale (3= strong negative influence, 0= no influence, +3= strong positive influence). Results: Eigthy-seven pediatric surgeons and residents participated in the survey. Three strong positive reasons (opportunity to perform surgery, working with children, and expected emotional satisfaction), one moderate reason (ability to appraisal of own skills and aptitude), and two minor positive reasons (expected academic opportunities and a teacher as a role model) were identified to select pediatric surgery as a medical career. Conclusion: Our findings may be used for the early identification and support of doctors who will become pediatric surgeons in Turkey.