ADHD and its associations with pregnancy, birth, developmental and medical-related characteristics


YÜKSEL A. E. , DOĞAN N. , Tahillioglu A. , Bilac O., Uysal T., ERCAN E. S.

CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12144-021-01817-1
  • Title of Journal : CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY
  • Keywords: ADHD, Inguinal hernia surgery, Medical history, Pregnancy, Surgery history, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, PERINATAL COMPLICATIONS, MATERNAL SMOKING, RISK-FACTORS, CHILDREN, SYMPTOMS, PREVALENCE, ANXIETY, AGE

Abstract

This study aimed to examine possible associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and pregnancy-related, birth-related, developmental, medical, and surgical history characteristics. The sample was derived from a non-referred community sample aged 6 to 14. 91 cases with ADHD and 264 without any psychopathology were compared in terms of psychological and physical problems in pregnancy, mode of delivery, birth complications, developmental stages, injuries, medical and surgical diseases. A semi-structured clinical interview was applied to diagnose the children. ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) was completed by the parents. Male gender, delay in talking time, and physical injury history predicted increased risks for ADHD. Although having any surgery, and in particular, tonsillectomy did not predict ADHD, inguinal hernia surgery alone predicted an increased risk for ADHD even when controlled for gender. Psychological problems during pregnancy were associated with elevated inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) scores, but not associated with ADHD as a diagnosis. Elevated IN scores but not HI scores were associated with a physical injury history. Although the mode of delivery and physical disease history were not associated with ADHD, asthma increased the likelihood for higher HI scores. The findings have crucial clinical implications that address several points. The findings suggest ADHD may have associations with some negative neurodevelopmental, medical, and surgical history characteristics. The predictivity of inguinal hernia surgery for ADHD might depend on the exposure to general anesthesia at younger ages. Hence, children who had these features should carefully be screened for ADHD.