A rainfall simulator for laboratory-scale assessment of rainfall-runoff-sediment transport processes over a two-dimensional flume

Aksoy H., Ünal N. E. , Çokgör Ş., Gedikli A., Yoon J., Koca K., ...More

CATENA, vol.98, pp.63-72, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 98
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.catena.2012.06.009
  • Title of Journal : CATENA
  • Page Numbers: pp.63-72


A rainfall simulator is an ideal tool for infiltration, soil erosion, and other related research areas for replicating the process and characteristics of natural rainfall. In this study, a laboratory-scale rainfall simulator is developed. Rainfall characteristics including the rainfall intensity and its spatial uniformity, raindrop size, raindrop velocity, and kinetic energy confirm that natural rainfall conditions are simulated with sufficient accuracy. Pressure nozzles are used to spray water corresponding to rainfall intensities ranging from 45 to 105 mm h(-1). The simulator produces rainfall with uniformity coefficient changing between 82 and 89%. The raindrops falling with an initial velocity from a height of 2.43 m have median diameters of 2.2-3.1 mm. The impact velocities of the median size raindrops deviate from their terminal velocities with a relative error between 6 and 15%. The accompanying erosion flume can be given slope up to 20% in lateral and longitudinal directions. During the experiments, flow measurement is taken from two outlets at the end of the flume to distinguish the contribution of interrill areas into rills. Experiments result in typical rainfall-induced hydrographs and sedigraphs observed under natural conditions. This shows the ability of the rainfall simulator for use in sediment transport processes over hillslopes. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.