Objective: Fas ligand (FasL) is an apoptotic agent and a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. FasL exists in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, and it is increased in tumor cell membrane. On the contrary, CTL and NK are bound to Fas on the surfaces of cell membrane; this triggers apoptosis in cytotoxic cells and leads to their death. This system plays an important role in eliminating viral infections and cancer cells. Malfunction of this system results in the development and spread of the malignancy. This study aims at evaluating the influence of Fas and FasL gene polymorphism in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the Turkish population. Research design and methods: Forty-five patients with PTC and 100 healthy controls were included in this study. The diagnosis of PTC was confirmed by histopathologic examination after surgery. The evaluation of genotype for Fas 670 A/G and FasL 843 C/T gene polymorphism was performed using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results: The evaluation of Fas/FasL genotype and gene allele frequency did not show statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (p > 0.05). In addition, the univariate analysis did not reveal a statistically significant relationship between the size of the nodule and the Fas/FasL gene polymorphism in patients with PTC. Conclusions: As in other types of malignancy, genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PTC may also show changes in different populations. Fas/FasL gene polymorphysms are possible that different mechanisms function in apoptosis balance in PTC development.