Hydrothermal carbonization of fructose-effect of salts and reactor stirring on the growth and formation of carbon spheres


Jung D., DUMAN TAÇ G. , Zimmermann M., Kruse A., YANIK J.

BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-021-01782-6
  • Title of Journal : BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY
  • Keywords: Bioeconomy, Carbon spheres, Hydrothermal carbonization, Kinetic model, ACID-CATALYZED CONVERSION, MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE, HARD CARBONS, D-XYLOSE, GLUCOSE, SUCROSE, BIOMASS, MICROSPHERES, HUMINS, MECHANISMS

Abstract

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has become a promising technology for the production of hydrochar and carbon spheres. Several studies indicate a strong dependency of the reaction conditions on the sphere diameter. The usage of additives, such as salts, is one possibility to increase the size of the spheres. However, the growth mechanism which leads to larger particles is not fully understood. In this work, kinetic studies of HTC with fructose were performed with different salts as additives. The growth of the particles (the increase in size) has been compared to the formation rates (increase in yield) of hydrochar by using the reaction rate constants from the kinetic model. The results indicate that the acceleration of the growth rate is independent of the formation rate. It is therefore assumed that coagulation, as a growth mechanism, took place. With longer reaction times, the particles reached a stable particle size, independently from the added salts; therefore, it was assumed that the particles underwent some sort of solidification. The state of matter can therefore be described as an intermediate state between liquid and solid, similar to mesophase pitch. Experiments with a stirrer resulted in squashed particles, which supports the model, that the particles exhibit emulsion-like behavior.