This report evaluates the haemostatic efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) in patients with haemophilia and high responding inhibitors who underwent major and minor surgery. Data pertaining to surgeries from 2001 to 2009 at a single centre were retrospectively analysed. During this period, 53 surgical procedures were performed in 30 haemophiliacs with high responding inhibitors. Mean age was 16.2 +/- 9.4 years. Eleven major surgeries in 4 patients, 41 radioisotope synovectomies (RS) and one circumcision classified as minor surgery in 28 patients were performed. Among the major surgery procedures, four were treated with rFVIIa, five with APCC and two with sequential use of APCC and rFVIIa. We used rFVIIa at the dosage of 80-120 mu g kg-1 every 2 h and APCC 100 IU kg-1 every 12 h for the major surgery. When performing RS, we used rFVIIa in 18 patients with 26 target joints and APCC in 9 patients with 15 target joints. Three consecutive doses of rFVIIa (90 mu g kg-1) were used at 2-h intervals followed by additional three doses at 6-h intervals. The initial dose of APCC was 75 IU kg-1 followed by a second and third dose of 50 IU kg-1 at 12-h intervals. APCC and rFVIIa demonstrated excellent efficacy in our major and minor surgical interventions [100% (22/22) and 94% (31/33), respectively]. We had only two bleeding complications with rFVIIa. There were no thromboembolic complications. APCC and rFVIIa provide an effective and safe first line haemostatic therapy for inhibitor-positive haemophiliacs, allowing both major and minor surgery to be successfully performed.