The aim of our study to investigate clinical value of a set of neuropeptides (brain derived neurotrophic factor-BDNF, galanin and neuropeptide Y-NPY) in critically ill neonates. A total of 53 neonates (preterm: 26, term: 27) evaluated with lumbar pucture for etiologic evaluation were consequtively included into the study. Serum and CSF levels of the neuropeptides were measured in the first 48 h of life. All infants were prospectively followed for prognostic outcome (survival and neurodevelopmental) at the first year of life. The study cohort was categorized into four groups with respect to seizure development; preterm neonates with or without seizure and term neonates with or without seizure. Mean CSF levels of NPY (pg/ml) were significantly higher in term neonates with than those without seizures (389.76 vs. 122.66) and galanin (3.31 vs. 1.55) respectively. Term neonates with seizures had significantly higher serum levels of NPY (ng/mL) as compared with neonates without seizures (54.00 vs. 9.10). No significant difference was noted in serum and CSF levels for the set of neuropeptides in neonates with respect to prognostic outcome. Serum NPY and CSF NPY and galanin levels have a potential role for detection of clinical seizures in term neonates. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.