Sand fly (Diptera: Phlebotominae) fauna were surveyed in various districts of Sanliurfa in southeast Turkey for 3 yr immediately after an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania tropica). Sticky papers and CDC light traps collected a total of 10,937 sand flies, of which 10,919 (4,158 females and 6,761 males) were identified as Phlebotomus and 18 (11 females and seven males) as Sergentomyia (S. theodori Parrot; S. adleri Theodor). Eight Phlebotomus spp. were identified: P. sergenti Parrot (72.3%), P. papatasi (Scopoli) (27.2%), P. brevis Theodor & Mesghali (0.20%), P. neglectus Leger & Pesson (0.13%), P. perfiliewi Parrot (0.05%), P. mascitti Grassi, P. halepensis Theodor, and P. alexandri Sinton (0.01%). Phlebotomus mascitti and P. neglectus, along with both Sergentomyia sp., have not been previously described from the study area. Similar results were obtained when both trapping methods were applied in the same houses, indicating that local P. sergenti and P. papatasi populations were equally attracted to the light. P. sergenti was consistently abundant, agreeing with the general view that this species is the vector of leishmaniasis in the region. There was no apparent decrease in the relative abundance of this vector versus the other species, suggesting that factor (s) other than a change in the dynamics of sand fly populations precipitated the decline of the human leishmaniasis epidemic in Sanliurfa.