Limited data exist to determine the prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Russian population, which might be different from those in Western countries. This study was performed in Moscow on randomized 1065 adults aged 15 years. A validated reflux questionnaire comprising 72 questions and an additional 29 sub-questions were used. The questions assessed (heartburn and regurgitation) and related (dyspepsia, dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain) symptoms, the triggering factors of these symptoms, family history and data on demographic and socioeconomic features. GERD was defined as heartburn and/or regurgitation once a week or common. Of the 1065 participants, 42.1% were male and 57.9% were female. The prevalences of frequent and occasional symptoms were 17.6 and 22.1% for heartburn and 17.5 and 21.8% for regurgitation, respectively, over the last 12 months. The prevalence of GERD was found to be 23.6%. The rate of GERD was significantly higher in females than in males (15.4 vs. 29.5%, P < 0.001) and significantly increased as the age of the participants increased (P = 0.011). GERD was present in 20.4% of smokers, 24.2% of coffee drinkers, 21.5% of alcohol consumers and 45.9% of stressed participants. Although the rate of alcohol consumers was lower in those with GERD compared with those without GERD, the rate of coffee drinkers and stressed participants was higher among those with GERD. The rate of additional symptoms was higher even in participants complaining of regurgitation/heartburn rarely, compared with those without complaints. Using the same questionnaire, which makes it possible to compare the present results with those from different countries, we found the prevalence of GERD in Moscow to be 23.6%, one of highest in the Western populations. The rates of heartburn and regurgitation were found to be similar, which constitutes a different result than has been found in similar studies. Additional symptoms should be assessed, in all GERD patients even in the presence of rare complaints of regurgitation/heartburn.