PESTICIDE USAGE AND THEIR POTENTIAL ADVERSE IMPACTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS


Tosun N. , Karabay Yavaşoğlu N. Ü. , Sayım F.

ANADOLU Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol.11, no.1, pp.113-125, 2001 (Other Refereed National Journals)

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2001
  • Title of Journal : ANADOLU Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi
  • Page Numbers: pp.113-125

Abstract

Agrochemicals are toxic chemical substances used to prevent the crop from diseases, pests and weeds. Some of these chemicals are much more toxic than that of others. However, when they are applied imroperly, all agrochemicals could pose to unwanted various negative effects to non-target warm blooded organizms and environment. Pesticides are inevitable agricultural input in crop protection to control of pests, diseases and weeds. The fact that pesticides are intensively used or misused in agriculture could give rise to potential environmental pollution and food contamination. Exposure of humans and animals to some pesticides is difficult to avoid in developing countries. Because of the high incidence of acute toxicities, some pesticides could be the possible reason of death for the higher organisms. More importantly, pesticides can produce a wide spectrum of adverse biological effects as the result of chronic toxicities in various organisms. Some commonly used pesticides in Turkey (such as chlorinated hydrocarbons) can persist for a long period in environment (soil, water, plants) without degradation into harmless products. So, they can be responsible for chronic toxicity by being accumulated in non-target organisms through biomagification. Moreover, various abnormalities can occur related to metabolic alterations due to chronic toxicities. Mutagenic, teratogenic, carsinogenic and neurotoxic effects are the basic criteria of chronic toxicities in ecotoxicological studies. Effects on mitotic activity of pesticides especially herbicides and fungicides are well documented in several researches. They may cause chromosomal abnormalities and