The qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric pollen on regional basis in different countries has increased. The reason for this is that pollen grains are a major cause for allergic asthma and hay fever (pollinosis) in sensitive people in particular children. Data obtained by using gravimetric (cm(2)/pollen grains) and volumetric (m(3)/pollen grains) methods in Turkey and the Northern Cyprus show, pollen concentrations during March, April, May, June and July are very high, but the densities vary on monthly basis depending on the phytogeographical division investigated. In general the dominant pollens in the atmosphere belong to Alnus glutinosa, Carpinus, Castanea sativa, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Fagus orientalis, Juglans regia, Morus, Olea europaea, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus, Pistacia, Plantago., Platanus orientalis, Poaceae, Populus, Quercus and Urticaceae. In this paper, an attempt is made to present an overview of the studies undertaken on the pollen calendars of Turkey and the Northern Cyprus during the last few decades and their allergenic effects. This will contribute in the treatment of allergic diseases as well as improve the quality of life of people sensitive to pollen allergies.