The aim of this study is to examine the use of Ferula communis fibers as potential reinforcement in polymer composites. The fibers are extracted from the F. communis plant which grows in Selcuk, Izmir in western Turkey. The chemical composition of ferula fibers in terms of cellulose, lignin, and ash contents was determined. Surface functional groups of ferula fibers were obtained by fourier transform infrared and Xray photoelectron spectroscopy. Crystallinity index and crystallite size were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology of ferula fibers was investigated through scanning electron microscopy, the thermal behavior through thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The real density of ferula fibers was measured by means of Archimedes method with ethanol. The mechanical properties of F. communis were measured through single fiber tensile tests. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a polyester matrix has been estimated from the pull-out test. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.