Adaptive Proportional-Integral Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks


YILDIRIM K. S. , CARLI R., SCHENATO L.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, cilt.26, ss.610-623, 2018

  • Cilt numarası: 26 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1109/tcst.2017.2692720
  • Dergi Adı: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.610-623

Özet

In this paper, we present a novel control-theoretic time synchronization algorithm, named PISync for synchronizing sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The PISync algorithm is based on an adaptive proportional-integral controller. It applies a proportional feedback (P) and an integral feedback (I) on the local measured synchronization errors to compensate the differences between the clock offsets and the clock speeds. We present practical flooding-based and fully distributed protocol implementations of the PISync algorithm, and we provide theoretical analysis to highlight the benefits of this approach in terms of improved steady-state error and scalability as compared with existing synchronization algorithms. We show through theoretical analysis, real-world experiments, and simulations that PISync protocols have better or comparable performance over existing protocols in the WSN literature in terms of rate of convergence and steady-state error with the additional advantages of requiring minimal CPU overhead, memory allocation, and code footprint independent of network size and topology, and of employing blind communication.