We aimed to reveal the anti-convulsant effects of oxytocin (OT) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Using stereotaxy, we implanted electroencephologram (EEG) electrodes in the left nucleus of the posterior thalamus. After 2 days, the first and second groups were used as the control and PTZ (35 mg/kg) groups, respectively. We administered 40, 80 and 160 nmol/kg OT + 35 mg/kg PTZ to the rats, constituting the third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively, for 5 days. At the end of 5 days, we recorded EEGs via bipolar EEG electrodes. After 12 h, all groups except the first received 70 mg/kg PTZ and we determined the dose-response ratio. Racine's Convulsion Scale was used to evaluate seizures. The spike-wave complex percentage in the EEG was determined as 0% for the first group, 38.6%+/- 7.2 for the second group, 36.4%+/- 5.6 for the third group, 4.3%+/- 1.8 for the fifth group and 4.1%+/- 1.1 for the fifth group. The fourth and fifth groups had significantly decreased spike-wave complex percentages compared to the second group (p<0.0001). OT may prevent PTZ-induced epilepsy on an EEG. OT may also be considered for use in the treatment of epilepsy in the future. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.