Reseda malatyana Ysidirim & Senol (Resedaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species to science, endemic to eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Reseda malatyana is related to Reseda armena Boiss. It differs from Reseda armena by the following characters: densely smaller, unbranched at the upper part, papillate-hispidulous stems; dark green, thicker, and densely papillate-hispidulous leaves; bigger petals; smaller pedicels; relatively smaller with sinus seeds; oblate-spheroidal, tricolporate, and rugulate pollen grains. R. malatyana is a perennial species that colonizes on marlstone rocky cliffs, known from a single locality in Levent Canyon, located in Malatya Province. It is an obligated chasmophytic species. In addition, the conservation status, distribution map, and notes on the biogeography and ecology of the new species are given. Moreover, the morphological description of Reseda armena, a poorly known and insufficiently characterized species due to its rarity and very limited material present in herbaria, is amplified and expanded based on the present material obtained from field studies and several herbaria.