Background: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DGO) is one of the well-recognized side effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) or nifedipine (Ni). After surgical periodontal therapy, the incidence of DGO recurrence is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical periodontal therapy in patients receiving CsA or Ni and who exhibit severe long-term DGO. In addition, the relationship between various variables and the recurrence of severe DGO after periodontal surgery was investigated.
Methods: A total of 38 patients, 22 with CsA-induced DGO and 16 with Ni-induced DGO, were included in this study. At baseline, patients received initial periodontal therapy, after which either the upper or lower anterior segment in each patient was surgically treated. Surgical periodontal therapy consisted of the flap technique with a 90 degrees gingivectomy incision. Following surgery, patients were placed on a maintenance therapy recall program and were monitored for 18 months. Patients were seen once a month for the first 3 months and once every 3 months for the following 15 months, Plaque index (PI), papilla bleeding index (PBI) and DGO scores in the treated segments were recorded at each recall appointment. Attendance at recall appointments was also noted for each patient.
Results: Recurrence of severe DGO was observed in 13 of the 38 patients (34%) 18 months following periodontal surgery. Multiple regression analysis indicated that age, gingival inflammation, and attendance at recall appointments were significant determinants of the recurrence of severe DGO.
Conclusions: This study suggests that regular re-motivation and professional care at frequent recall appointments after periodontal surgery are of great importance in patients receiving CsA or Ni. By maintaining periodontal health, the life quality of these patients may be raised.