The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of viscosity changes of different acidic solutions on dental erosion. Bovine enamel samples (n = 240, empty set = 3 mm) were embedded in acrylic resin and were allocated to 30 groups (n = 8). Citric acid (CA) and phosphoric acid (PA) solutions at pH 2.5, 3, and 3.5 were prepared in deionized water (titratable acidity to pH 5.5: 31 +/- 0.6 mmol OH-/l). The kinetic viscosities of the acidic solutions were adjusted to 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mm(2)/sec by the addition of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) at different concentrations. Solutions were pumped over the enamel surface from a reservoir with a drop rate of 1 mL/min. Each specimen was eroded for 10 min at 20 degrees C. Erosion of enamel surfaces was measured by profilometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance and logarithmic regression analyses (p < 0.05). Enamel loss was dependent on viscosity, pH, and the kind of acid. The regression analyses showed that higher viscosity caused lower enamel erosion for both acids and all pH levels. Dental erosion is dependent not only on chemical factors of the acid, like pH and acid type, but also on acid viscosity.