PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate the neurovascular structures and their relevant anatomy with the endonasal endoscopic transpterygoid approach on fresh human cadavers. In addition, the relationship between the vidian nerve, ICA and surrounding structures were investigatedMethodsThis study was carried out at an otolaryngology department of a tertiary medical center between June 2014 and June 2015. Ten fresh human cadavers were included in this study. Pterygopalatine fossa was explored via an endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach. Same surgical dissection procedures were performed on all cadavers: maxillary antrostomy, anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, sphenoidotomy, transpterygoid pterygopalatine fossa and vidian canal dissection.ResultsMean distance between the anterior nasal spine and ethmoidal crest was 60.35 1.31 mm (range 59-64 mm). Mean distance between the sphenopalatine foramen and superior border of choana was 18.30 +/- 1.38 mm (range 17-22 mm). Mean distance between the vidian canal and sphenopalatine foramen was 6.30 +/- 0.47 mm (range 5.5-7 mm). Mean distance between the vidian canal and anterior nasal spine was 64.6 +/- 1.71 mm (range 62-67 mm). Foramen rotundum was located superior lateral to the vidian canal in all specimens. Mean distance between foramen rotundum and vidian canal was 9.45 +/- 0.60 mm (range 8.5-10.5 mm). Course of the greater palatine nerve was always medial to the descending palatine artery. The mean length of the vidian nerve from the petrous ICA to the point the nerve exits the vidian canal (vidian canal length) was 17.90 +/- 1.59 mm (range 16-20 mm).ConclusionsThe distances between the vidian canal and surrounding neurovascular structures would help the skull base surgeon in this narrow and complex area.