Post-transplant prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is based on treatment with lamivudine and/or hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). However, optimum doses and duration for these drugs are not yet clear. We tested high doses of lamivudine (300 mg/day) in combination with low doses of HBIG (200-400 IU/2-4 weeks). Eighty patients who had post-transplant prophylaxis of lamivudine and HBIG were included in the study. Of those, 20 had hepatitis D virus co-infection and eight were HBV DNA-positive at the time of transplantation. Ten HBV DNA-positive patients were treated with lamivudine (150 mg/day) before transplantation; all were HBV DNA-negative after lamivudine treatment.