The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct right atrial catheter insertion for hemodialysis in patients with multiple venous access failure. We retrospectively evaluated the charts of 27 patients with multiple venous access failure who had intra-atrial dialysis catheter placement between October 2005 and October 2010 in our clinic. Permanent right atrial dialysis catheters were placed through a right anterior mini-thoracotomy under intratracheal general anesthesia in all patients. Demographics of the cases, the patency rates of hemodialysis via atrial catheterization, existence of any catheter thrombosis, and catheter-related infections were documented and used in statistical analysis. Seventeen women (63%) and 10 men (37%) with the mean age of 59.0 +/- 7.1 years (4771) were enrolled in this study. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed for the mean of 78.9 +/- 24.3 months (33130). Five patients (18.5%) died. Ventricular fibrillation and myocardial infarction were the causes of death in the early postoperative period in two patients. Two of the remaining three patients died because of cerebrovascular events, and one patient died because of an unknown cause. Ten patients (37%) had been using anticoagulate agents (warfarin) because of concomitant disorders such as deep vein thrombosis, operated valve disease, and arrhythmias. Catheter thrombosis and malfunction was determined in three cases (11.1%). Intra-atrial hemodialysis catheterization is a safe and effective life-saving measure for the patients with multiple venous failure and without any possibility of peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation.