The aim of this study was to determine Candida spp. incidence in the oral cavity of denture wearers and characterize predisposing factors in denture-related stomatitis (DRS). Three groups of denture wearers and a control group were evaluated for DRS according to Newton's classification. The amount of yeast in saliva and the presence of yeast on mucosal surfaces were determined by phenotyping methods, and the impact of some risk factors on candidal carriage was evaluated. The development of DRS is most common in complete prosthesis users. When the count of yeast in saliva is >= 400 cfu/ml, the frequency of DRS is increased. In individuals who develop DRS, the most frequently encountered species that was identified as C. albicans. Prosthetic hygiene was related to the intensity of candidal growth and the development of DRS. C. albicans live as saprophyte in the oral cavity. But, it is capable of causing infection if there are predisposing conditions related to the host. Usage of removable prosthesis may cause these microorganisms to gain pathogenicity.