14. Ulusal Sinirbilim Kongresi, Ankara, Turkey, 26 - 29 May 2016, vol.10, pp.34
Objective: Graphene, a monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, is a quasi–two-dimensional (2D) material with unique electrical and chemical properties. In terms of the biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide (GO), nervous system would be an ideal breakthrough model, because neural cells are electro-active. Glutamate is one of the important neu- rotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) and it plays a vital role in neural pathways. Extreme glutamate concentra- tions may cause excitotoxicity, which is defined as the patho- logical process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation. The aim of this work is to investigate whether culture of CNS neurons on GO has any neuroprotec- tive effect toward glutamate stress.
Methods: B35 neuroblastoma cells were grown in DMEM F12 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Graphene oxide pow- der was coated onto glass slides as a thin film. B35 cells were cultured on graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Cultivated cells on glass slides were used as the control group. After 24 hours of cell culture, L-glutamic acid induced excitotoxicity was applied on B35 cells on both surfaces. After 24 hours of post-stress cul- ture, morphologies of cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.
Results: The effects of glutamate stress on cell viability were vis- ible as early as 1 hour on both surfaces. The cell viability of B35 cells on GO sheets was higher than on glass slides, and cells recov- ered from the stress within 6 hours on GO surfaces while viabili- ty on glass surfaces was lower than 54% after 24 hours. Cell mor- phology and toxicity measurements also supported this observa- tion.
Conclusion: We demonstrated that glutamate is toxic to B35 cells above the concentration of 100mM. The culture on GO
increases the resistance to glutamate stress on B35 cells, and helps fast recovery. This study aimed to show the potential use of GO, with the increasing knowledge about the role of gluta- mate, as a therapeautic biomaterial helping the treatment for excitotoxicity induced neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: B35 cell line, excitotoxicity, glutamate stress, graphene oxide