Supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops through organic manures as compost derived from agroindustrial wastes plays a key role in sustaining soil fertility, and crop productivity and reducing use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, this work was conducted for investigating the effects of addition of oily cumin compost (CC) and oily oregano compost (OC) (these composts were derived from oily cumin and oily oregano wastes of aromatic plant factory) at rates of 40 t ha1 to identify those potential organic amendments that might improve the quality of an Entisol. Additionally, those effects on the biochemical properties of a Typic xerofluvent soil were compared to chemical fertilization (CF) and also control (CT) during a cotton vegetation period under a Mediterranean climatic condition. Soil biological status was evaluated by measuring the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal soil respiration (BSR), N-mineralization (Nmin), soil metabolic quotient (qCO2) and soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase-DHG, urease-UA, protease-PRO, and alkaline phosphate-ALKPA) in soil samples that were collected on the 19th, 78th and 190th days followed by compost application to the experimental soils. The MBC, BSR and qCO2, as well as soil enzyme activities, increased significantly in the compost-treated soils compared with the CF-treated soil and nontreated soils (CT) with respect mean values. The level of microbial activity of soil applied chemical fertilizer was almost the same to those of control soil. As a result of cumin compost (CC) application 137-1810% increase of the level of microbial activity with respect to the CT and CF, followed by OC, 47-314% occurred at the end of the experiment. Because of this there were no toxic effects caused by composts observed. The application of these composts to the soil resulted in the most increase in DHG activity significantly. The application of CC with a C/N ratio of 23 resulted a more favorable soil biological properties than the application of OC (C/N ratio = 32) during cotton vegetation period (190days). Results from this study suggest that composted aromatic plant wastes can be used to enhance the soil microbial activity, thereby promoting plant growth.