Objective: In this study we aimed to show the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary stone disease in the pediatric age group and to evaluate the complications encountered after the treatment. Methods: 67 children with 109 stones underwent ESWL, using a Dornier MPL 9000 lithotriptor. Styrofoam boards were used to protect the lungs. KUB and chest radiographs were taken on the day after treatment. If stone-free status was achieved, the patient was followed with ultrasonography and urine analysis every 6 months for 2 years. If fragments <4 mm were present, follow-up was repeated every 3 months. Results: Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 cm. 71 renoureteral units underwent a total of 129 ESWL sessions. Retreatment was required in 28 patients. The mean number of sessions per unit was 1.8. A stone-free status was achieved in 60 renoureteral units. The overall success rate was 88.6 %. The composition of the stone was mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate in the majority of the patients. Auxiliary procedures used were push-back, ureteroscopic stone removal, and open surgery. Hematuria, colics and fever over 38 degrees C were the complications encountered after the treatment. Conclusions: ESWL is the first-line treatment for renal and upper ureteral calculi. However, larger stones which will require several ESWL sessions and consecutively increased number of shock waves are best treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy plus ESWL. Patients with congenital anomalies necessitating surgical reconstruction are the best candidates for operation.