Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory, multifactorial diseases where the major triggering factors for disease onset are bacteria and their toxins, but the major part of tissue destruction occurs as a result of host response towards the periodontal microbiome. Periodontal microbiome consists of a wide range of microorganisms including obligate and facultative anaerobes. In health, there is a dynamic balance between the host, environment, and the microbiome. Environmental factors, mainly tobacco smoking and psychological stress, disrupt the symbiotic relationship. Tobacco smoke and its components alter the bacterial surface and functions such as growth. Psychological stressors and stress hormones may affect the outcome of an infection by changing the virulence factors and/or host response. This review aims to provide currently available data on the effects of the major environmental factors on the periodontal microbiome.