In the present study, a sensitive electrochemical aptamer-based biosensing strategy for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) detection was proposed using nanofiber-modified disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs). The composite nanofiber was comprised of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polypyrrole (PPy) polymers, and fabrication of the nanofibers was accomplished using electrospinning process onto PGEs. Development of the nanofibers was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The high-affinity 5 '-aminohexyl-linked aptamer was immobilized onto a PAN/PPy composite nanofiber-modified sensor surface via covalent bonding strategy. After incubation with NSCLC living cells (A549 cell line) at 37.5 degrees C, the recognition between aptamer and target cells was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The selectivity of the aptasensor was evaluated using nonspecific human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and a nonspecific aptamer sequence. The proposed electrochemical aptasensor showed high sensitivity toward A549 cells with a detection limit of 1.2 x 10(3)cells/mL. The results indicate that our label-free electrochemical aptasensor has great potential in the design of aptasensors for the diagnostics of other types of cancer cells with broad detection capability in clinical analysis.