The aim of the present work was to determine the applicability of raw and modified brown macroalga Cystoseira sp. as a biosorbent material for the sorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. Equilibrium of uranium biosorption was analyzed under isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters of the process. Recovery of uranium from acidic mine wastewater was also applied. The mechanism of biosorption was discussed considering experimental data and theoretical models. The bioremoval efficiency of modified biomass was higher than raw Cystoseira sp. and the theoretical biosorption capacity of modified biosorbent was calculated to be 468.01 mg U/g.