Recent global developments concerning food quality and food safety have influenced and stimulated food legislation in Turkey in accordance with internal and international trade and agreements. In this study, the way in which the dairy industry conforms to this legislation was analyzed through a case study of izmir province, which generally has all the structural characteristics of the dairy sector in Turkey. A survey in which dairy plant managers responded to a special questionnaire was used to collect data from 86 dairy plants chosen on the basis of proportional sampling. According to the results of this study, (i) there are many dairy processors in the region, (ii) most managers have a limited education concerning their positions, (iii) most firms handle small volumes of milk and have little control over the raw milk supply, (iv) resources are too limited in these firms, limiting their ability to adopt most regulations, and (v) few processors apply the regulatory practices imposed by governmental agencies. Thus, food legislation is not enough to ensure food safety in the dairy industry in Turkey. Technical and educational support should be given to farmers and the staff of dairy firms by the Ministry of Agriculture to form an appropriate food safety infrastructure in Turkey for the milk and processed dairy products industry.