We investigated the frequencies and associated risk factors of cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. One hundred fifty prevalent HD patients underwent 48-hour Holter monitoring. Holter monitoring was analyzed in 4 phases: early post-HD phase (12 hours), late post-HD phase (20 hours), pre-HD phase (12 hours), and HD phase (4 hours). Echocardiography was applied to measure the left ventricular mass index in a subgroup of patients (n: 52). Patients with ventricular premature contraction (VPC) were significantly older, had a longer HD duration, and higher hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Left ventricular mass index was significantly correlated with the frequency of VPC, during the HD and pre HD phases (r: 0.435, 0.312, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, patients with Hb level > 11.9 g/dL (high tertile) had a 4.5-fold increased risk of VPC compared with those with Hb levels < 10.8 g/dL (P: 0.04). In HRV analysis, age (P < 0.001), and diabetes (P: 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of low standard deviation of all mean normal-to-normal RR intervals. Increased left ventricular mass index is associated with a high frequency of VPC in the pre-HD and HD periods. The occurrence of VPC is predicted by older age, longer dialysis duration, and higher Hb levels, while older age and diabetes are the determinants of HRV. The relation between higher Hb levels and the frequency of VPC might provide a clue for the explanation of the detrimental effect of higher Hb levels on HD patients.