In this study, the fatty-acid profile, essential-oil composition and cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the aerial parts of Ranunculus pedatus Waldst. & Kit. subsp. pedatus have been examined. Linoleic acid (24.47 %) and palmitoleic acid (18.94 %): were identified as major components by GC-FID and GC/MS analysis. Unsaturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The essential-oil composition was also analyzed by GC and GC/MS and 29 components were characterized. Protoanemonin (14.3 %), phytol (13.7 %); alpha-bisabolol (7.9 %), (Z)-3-hexenol (7.8 %) and octanol (6.7 %) were determined as the main constituents of the essential oil. Ethanol and chloroform extracts were investigated for the cytotoxic activity against PC3, HeLa and Vero human cancer cell lines and both : of the extracts were found to be effective On HeLa. The IC50 values were determined as 47 and 78.4 mg/mL, for methanol and chloroform : extracts respectively. Antioxidant activity of chloroform and ethanol extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The total phenolics and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. The ethanol , extract was found to possess 67.54 % DPPH inhibition. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity assay were in positive correlation le with the total phenolics and flavonoid contents of the extracts.