Taxonomy of mole rats (Nannospalax) is highly provisional and the genus is in a need of a thorough revision. In this investigation, 23 (13 males, 10 females) specimens from the Central East (Malatya, Sivas) and Northeast (Kars, Ardahan) Anatolian provinces, were studied karyologically and twelve of these specimens (7 males, 5 females) were employed to analyse electrophoretic patterns of their blood proteins (serology). This study indicated chromosomal separation of both region (2n=50, NF=82, NFa=78 and 2n=60, NF=70, NFa=66). The separation of both regions was supported by the differences obtained in serograms in which blood serum proteins were composed by 11 fractions belonging to the 2n=50 chromosomal specimens and by 10 fractions in 2n=60 chromosomal specimens. Therefore the serological data obtained from this study support the results of the present and earlier karyological studies showing that populations of mole rats in both regions are karyologically and genetically distinct one from another. It is suggested that these two populations could be assigned to separate putative biological species.