This study was conducted to determine the polymorphisms of the POU1F1 gene and their relationships with milk yield and components, litter size, birth weight, and weaning weight in goats. For this purpose, a total of 108 Saanen goats from two different farms (Bornova and Manisa) were used as animal materials. Polymorphisms at the exon 6 and the 3' flanking region of the POU1F1 gene were determined by using PCR-RFLP with PstI and AluI restriction enzymes and DNA sequencing analyses. Two alleles and three genotypes were identified by AluI or PstI digestions of the POU1F1 gene. The genotypes frequencies of TT, TC, and CC were 64.8 %, 31.5 % and 3.7 % for the PstI locus; 54.6 %, 31.5 % and 13.9 % for the AluI locus, respectively. T allele frequencies (0.56 and 0.88 for the AluI locus, 0.80 and 0.81 for the PstI locus, respectively) were predominant in both loci at the Bornova and Manisa farms. In terms of POU1F1-AluI and POU1F1-PstI loci, two populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In the POU1F1-Alullocus, significant associations were found between genotypes and lactation milk yield and litter size. Similarly, a significant relationship between genotypes and birth weight in the POU1F1-PstI locus (p < 0.05) was determined. The TC and CC genotypes were observed to be higher than the TT genotype for lactation milk yield and litter size at the POU1F1-AluI locus. Birth weight was found to be higher in animals that have the CC genotype at the POU1F1-PstI locus. In conclusion, the POU1F1 gene can be used as a molecular marker for economic features like reproduction, growth, milk content and yield in Saanen goats.