Background/objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with dyslipidemia, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is accepted as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol is a better marker of atherogenic dyslipidemia and recommended as a target of lipid lowering therapy. We aimed to assess the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia, and relationship between OSA severity and serum LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in OSA patients. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated treatment naive 2361 subjects admitted to the sleep laboratory of a university hospital for polysomnography. All subjects' lipid profile including total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-cholesterol were measured. Results: Out of 2361 patients (mean age 49.6 +/- 11.9 years; 68.9% male, apnea-hypopnea index 36.6 +/- 28.4/h), 185 (7.8%) had no OSA and 2176 (92.2%) had OSA. Atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was high (57-66%) in OSA patients, and especially increased in severe OSA compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Though total and LDL-cholesterol did not differ between those with and without OSA, nonHDL-cholesterol (p = 0.020), and triglycerides (p = 0.001) were higher and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.018) were lower in OSA patients than non-OSA. Non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly correlated with OSA severity (p < 0.001) and hypoxia parameters (p < 0.01), whereas LDL-cholesterol showed no correlation. Conclusions: Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent and non-HDL-cholesterol levels are signifi-cantly increased, predominantly in severe OSA patients. Non-HDL-cholesterol but not LDL-cholesterol, is significantly correlated with OSA severity and hypoxia parameters. Therefore, it could be better to use non-HDL-cholesterol, which is a guideline recommended target of lipid therapy, as a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in OSA patients. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.