Achievement goal orientation (AGO) might help music teacher candidates make their learning processes more effective by revealing how they are motivated towards the learning tasks. In this respect, the purpose of this study was to examine the levels of achievement goal orientation of pre-service music teachers according to eight variables. The participants of the study consisted of 1250 undergraduate students studying in the departments of music education during the academic year 2013-2014 in Turkey. The data were collected through an Information Form and the Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (AOS). The results of the study revealed that gender, grade level, students' achievement level and willingness had small effects on students' learning goal orientation. Practice time in music, students' evaluation of their own achievement levels among their peers, the extent to which students found themselves skilled in music and pursuing another profession had a medium effect on learning goal orientation. Informing students about the achievement goal orientation and the effects of these goals on the teaching and learning process may help students with their achievement goal orientations towards the desired direction.