Objective: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system. Chronic inflammation has been reported to be a risk factor for thyroid neoplasia. The propensity to mount an inflammatory response is modified by germ line variation in cytokine and other inflammation-related genes. We hypothesized that a proinflammatory genotype would be positively associated with thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the relation between the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the IL-10(-1082 G/A), IL-10(-592 A/C), and IL-10(-819 C/T) polymorphisms, and their association with the risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the Turkish population. Research design and methods: Forty-two patients with PTC and 113 healthy controls were included in this study. The diagnosis of PTC was confirmed by histopathologic examination after surgery. The evaluation of genotype for IL-10 gene polymorphism was performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Statistically significant difference IL-10(-1082 G/A) gene polymorphism was determined between 2 (PTC and control) groups. No difference was determined with respect to IL-10(-592 A/C) and IL-10(-819 C/T) gene polymorphisms, and IL-10(-1082 G/A), IL-10(-592 A/C), and IL-10(-819 C/T) allele frequencies of participating between the control group and the patients with PTC (p>0.05). Conclusions: The polymorphism of IL-10(-1082 G/A) gene was significantly associated with the occurrence of PTC. Such studies will contribute significantly to our understanding of the biological role of IL-10(-1082 G/A) gene polymorphism in PTC development. In conclusion, IL-10(-1082 G/A) gene polymorphism may affect the survival of papillary thyroid carcinoma.