Exosomes and their Application in Biomedical Field: Difficulties and Advantages


REZAİE J., AJEZİ S., Avci C. B. , KARİMİPOUR M., GERANMAYEH M. H. , NOURAZARIAN A., ...More

MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY, vol.55, no.4, pp.3372-3393, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 55 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12035-017-0582-7
  • Title of Journal : MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.3372-3393

Abstract

The science of gene therapy has experienced a controversial history. At first, the initial concept that various disorders become curable by gene transferring was very exciting and challengeable. However, the problems and difficulties related to emerging techniques and unwanted side effects seen in some patients who have undergone gene therapy make some questions against the safety of novel molecular medicine approach. In line with this statement, discovery and developing a good bio-vector possessing low toxicity and high efficiency rate are the most important issues in gene therapy field. Introducing exosomes as vectors for gene delivery gives us a new opportunity in gene-based therapy. Exosomes, ranging from 30 to 120 nm in diameter, have unique lipid and protein composition. These nanostructures participate in cell-to-cell cross-talk, regulation of immune system, and the transport of genetic material. Besides the inherent potency of exosomes in gene therapy, a better understanding of their biology, characteristics, production, targeting, and cargo loading still need to be elucidated. In the current review, we exclusively focused on the various facets of exosomes and their importance as a bio-shuttle in gene therapy.