Microbial community dynamics and PTA wastewater degradation performance of sequentially connected two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactors have been studied for 225 days. The working volume of acidogenic (R1) and methanogenic reactors (R2) have sixfold differences. Thus, the reactors operated under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions, which are preferential for PTA wastewater content. Archeal and bacterial profiles of granules were analyzed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) techniques. According to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) results, 4-Carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA) and acetic acid (AA) completely degraded in the first stage, whereas terephthalate (TA) and p-toluic acid (p-TA) degradation ratios were 90% and 47% in the second stage, respectively. The methane content of the UASB reactor was determined as 76% by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Microbial community analysis indicated that the members of hydrogenotrophic methanogen groups Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were dominantly responsible for methane production throughout the process.