Background: It has been claimed that patients with late transplant failure returning to peritoneal dialysis have lower patient and technique survival. Purpose: In this retrospective study, we aimed to clarify this issue in a large PD population. Methods: Thirty-four PD patients with a failed renal transplant (FTx) and 82 PD patients who had never received a kidney transplant (Non-Tx) or HD treatment were investigated. All fTx patients were using only steroids (5-10 mg/day) for first 3 months of peritoneal dialysis. The groups were similar regarding to age, sex, residual renal function and KT/V; none of them was diabetic. Results: Ftx group had a higher number of peritonitis attack than Non-Tx group (2.42 +/- 0.41 v 1.61 +/- 0.15, attack per patient, p = 0.013). PET status was not different. One, 3 and 5 year patient survival calculated with the Kaplan Meier method were 93%; 93%; 93% respectively in Ftx and 97%; 89%; 82% respectively in Non-Tx patients. Technique survival was 83%; 77%; 60% in Ftx and 91%; 64%; 48% in Non-Tx patients respectively. Conclusions: We conclude that PD appears to be a good option for fTx patients. A previous renal transplantation does not adversely affect patient and technique survival. Although the somewhat higher infection risk is of some concern, we did not observe earlier loss of peritoneal functions (high transporter) in the post transplant patients.