The long-lived natural radionuclides within the agricultural soils can even many years still cause an enhanced radiation exposure of the population either via direct external radiation, or by their transfer in the food chain via root uptake. The main objective of this study is, therefore, to investigate the distribution of natural radionuclides in agricultural soils of Kucuk Menderes Basin in terms of sustainable agricultural productivity and food safety, and to generate a radiological database. For this purpose, a total of 105 representative surface soil samples were systematically collected all over the agricultural lands and analyzed for naturally occurring radionuclides using gamma spectrometry system with HPGe during the 2002-2004. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soils were found to be in the range of 17-76 Bqkg-1, 17-51 Bqkg(-1) and 296-1305 Bqkg(-1), respectively. In the region, mean outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate of 59 nGyh(-1) was calculated from the observed concentrations of the natural radionuclides. The mean annual effective dose equivalent to the population due to the natural radionuclides was also estimated to be 70 mu Svy(-1). These values fall within the range of average values summarized in the literature.