The aim of this study was to observe the course of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (MMBFN) in relation to the inferior border of the mandible and parotid gland and its relevance to surgical procedures such as rhytidectomy and parotid gland surgery. In this study, 50 specimens were dissected. The relationships between the MMBFN and the inferior border of the mandible were recorded and analyzed. We found that posterior to the facial artery, the MMBFN ran above the inferior border of the mandible in 37 (74%) of the specimens. In 11 (22%) specimens, below the inferior border of the mandible it was divided into two branches at the crossing point with the facial artery. In 2 (4%) specimens the MMBFN divided into two branches at the point of emergence from the parotid gland. There were no statistical differences between the left and right sides, and both sexes. The MMBFN is one of the most vulnerable branches to surgical injury because of its location. For this reason, the surgeons who are willing to operate on this area, especially for the rhytidectomies, should have a true knowledge about the anatomy of this branch.