Essential oil (EO) was hydrodistillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and chemically determined using gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. The analysis of the EO from the leaves of the Pistacia terebinthus has indicated that -pinene (19.97%), sabinene (15.43%), -pinene (8.57%) and terpinen-4-ol (9.65%) are the major compounds of the oil in concern. In the antibacterial disc diffusion assay, EO revealed a broad spectrum activity on the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria when compared with the standard antibiotics. Likewise, in the insecticidal assay, significant activity was observed on two important pest insects, Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum. A 100% mortality was found at 160L/L air dose for T.castaneum at 48-h and A.obtectus at 72-h exposure periods, respectively. Practical Applications Various parts of the Pistacia terebinthusL. belonging to the Anacardiaceae family are edible and contribute significant benefits with invaluable potentialities to the Mediterranean life. Leaves of this tree are consumed as either fresh or cooked. The biological potential of the essential oil (EO) from the leaves of P. terebinthusL. grown in the Eastern Mediterranean region has not been assessed so far. The present assays indicated that the EO of P.terebinthus contains bioactive compounds against bacteria and pest insects suggesting its potential use in food processing and preservation.