Biomarkers are essential tools in monitoring studies, which include environmental monitoring, biological monitoring, biological effect monitoring, and health surveillance, as well as drug development processes. Their discovery, validation, and analysis require highly sensitive and selective analytical technologies. In this regard, gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have facilitated great achievements in all these areas. In addition and closely related to biomarkers, the ongoing developments in these techniques promise a better understanding of the nature and mechanisms of toxic effects originating from various chemical, biological, or physical sources. This Review compiles studies performed on selected biomarkers with respect to both method development and application. Section 1 summarizes the concept of biomarkers; their application in various industrial/occupational, agricultural, drug developmental, and medical/clinical platforms. This section also focuses on biotransformation studies in close relation to biomarker discovery and validation, and on major techniques utilized in this area. In Section 2, biotransformation of volatile anesthetics in humans with a focus on mercapturic acid derivatives as potential biomarkers of effect is reviewed. The use of GC-ECD, GC/MS, and F-19-NMR in these studies is described. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of aldehydic lipid peroxidation degradation products by GC-ECD in mammalian cells in which oxidative stress induced chemically, and in humans after various challenges; anesthetic exposure, ischemia-reperfusion, and controlled endurance exercise. In Section 4, method development for protein and DNA oxidation products by LC-tandem MS and its application in mammalian cells and in humans are summarized. Possibilities, limitations, and future perspectives are discussed in Section 5.