The frequency, location, and function of the vomeronasal organ, also known as the Jacopson organ, in human beings remains poorly understood. In this study, a search for the frequency of the vomeronasal organ was performed by nasal examinations of 346 adult patients and 21 cadaver heads by anterior rhinoscopy and videotaped rigid 30degrees endoscopy. The vomeronasal organ was identified in 112 patients (32%) and in 8 cadaver heads (38%). The location, shape, type, and relation to sex of the vomeronasal organ were described. Ten specimens were examined histologically and histochemically for neuron-specific enolase (anti-neuron-specific enolase), high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (anti-high-molecular-weight cytokeratin), and low-molecular-weight cytokeratin (anti-low-molecular-weight cytokeratin). Considering its variability in shape and the lack of immunohistochemical characteristics of nerve tissue, the present results are not suited to argue for functional significance of the vomeronasal organ in human beings.