Characterization of Volatile Release and Sensory Properties of Model Margarines by Changing Fat and Emulsifier Content

Dadalı C. , Elmacı Y.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.121, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 121
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ejlt.201900003
  • Keywords: butter aroma, model margarine emulsion, volatile release, water in oil emulsion, w, o emulsion, IN-WATER EMULSION, FLAVOR RELEASE, AROMA COMPOUNDS, OIL, PERCEPTION, INTENSITY, PARTITION, HEADSPACE, SYSTEMS, BUTTER


Fat ratio and emulsifier content of water in oil margarine emulsions changes the sensory properties of the margarines by affecting the volatile release. The effect of fat and emulsifier content on volatile release using headspace/solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/SPME/GC/MS), and sensory properties of model margarine emulsions is investigated. 2-Heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, hexanoic acid, and delta-decalactone releases are found to be lower, while 2,3-butanedion and butanoic acid releases are higher in model margarine with high fat content. Also the releases of 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, hexanoic acid, and delta-decalactone decreases due to the increase of the emulsifier ratio used in the model margarine. It is found that the hardness and G values of the margarines increased together with the increase of fat and emulsifier ratio. In model margarines, butter aroma and taste, cheese aroma and taste are intensely perceived characters by descriptive sensory analysis and they perceived more intensely in products with higher fat content. On the other hand, creamy character is perceived more intensely in model margarines with less fat content. The release of volatile compounds depended on fat and emulsifier content used in the model margarines. Taste and aroma of model margarines are especially affected by the change in fat content while textural properties are affected by both fat and emulsifier content.Practical Applications: The flavor of the food plays an important role in the consumer's choice of food, and it is influenced by the matrix and composition of the food. Fat is an important part of food, and on the other hand, overconsumption of fat could cause health problems. There is an increasing interest in foods with low fat content for healthier human diets. However, reducing the fat in the product leads to a change in the flavor and texture of the product. Designing the product with the desired properties without affecting the flavor of the food generates problems for the researchers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fat and emulsifier content on volatiles of model margarine. Knowledge obtained from this study could provide a guide for margarine and spread producers to formulate low-fat margarine by using the data obtained on volatile release and flavor depending on fat content and emulsifier mixture of margarines. The volatile release and sensory properties of model margarines are affected by fat and emulsifier content. Model margarine emulsions with high fat content has higher 2,3-butanedion and butanoic acid release. Also 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, hexanoic acid, and delta-decalactone releases decreases with increasing emulsifier content. Butter aroma, butter taste, cheese aroma, and cheese taste are intensely perceived volatiles in high-fat-content model margarines.